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Policy & Politics in Nursing and Health Care Seventh Edition

Policy & Politics in Nursing and Health Care Seventh Edition

Policy & Politics in Nursing and Health Care Seventh Edition

Diana J. Mason, PhD, RN, FAAN

Rudin Professor of Nursing

Co-Director of the Center for Health, Media, and Policy

School of Nursing

Hunter College

City University of New York

New York, New York

Deborah B. Gardner, PhD, RN, FAAN, FNAP

Health Policy and Leadership Consultant, LLC

Honolulu, Hawaii

Freida Hopkins Outlaw, PhD, RN, FAAN

Adjunct Professor

Peabody College of Education

Vanderbilt University

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Nashville, Tennessee

Eileen T. O’Grady, PhD, NP, RN

Nurse Practitioner and Wellness Coach

McLean, Virginia

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Table of Contents

Cover image

Title page

Copyright

About the Editors

Contributors

Reviewers

Foreword

Preface

What’s New in the Seventh Edition?

Using the Seventh Edition

Acknowledgments Unit 1 Introduction to Policy and Politics in

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Nursing and Health Care

Chapter 1 Frameworks for Action in Policy and Politics

Upstream Factors

Nursing and Health Policy

Reforming Health Care

Nurses as Leaders in Health Care Reform

Policy and the Policy Process

Forces That Shape Health Policy

The Framework for Action

Spheres of Influence

Health

Health and Social Policy

Health Systems and Social Determinants of Health

Nursing Essentials

Policy and Political Competence

Discussion Questions

References

Online Resources

Chapter 2 An Historical Perspective on Policy, Politics, and Nursing

“Not Enough to be a Messenger”

Bringing Together the Past for the Present: What We Learned From History

Conclusion

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Discussion Questions

References

Online Resources

Chapter 3 Advocacy in Nursing and Health Care

The Definition of Advocacy

The Nurse as Patient Advocate

Consumerism, Feminism, and Professionalization of Nursing: the Emergence of Patients’ Rights Advocacy

Philosophical Models of Nursing Advocacy

Advocacy Outside the Clinical Setting

Barriers to Successful Advocacy

Summary

Discussion Questions

References

Online Resources

Chapter 4 Learning the Ropes of Policy and Politics

Political Consciousness-Raising and Awareness: the “Aha” Moment

Getting Started

The Role of Mentoring

Educational Opportunities

Applying Your Political, Policy, Advocacy, and Activism Skills

Political Competencies

Changing Policy at the Workplace Through Shared Governance

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Discussion Questions

References

Online Resources

Chapter 5 Taking Action: How I Learned the Ropes of Policy and Politics

Mentors, Passion, and Curiosity

Chapter 6 A Primer on Political Philosophy

Political Philosophy

The State

Gender and Race in Political Philosophy

The Welfare State

Political Philosophy and the Welfare State: Implications for Nurses

Discussion Questions

References

Online Resources

Chapter 7 The Policy Process

Health Policy and Politics

Unique Aspects of U.S. Policymaking

Conceptual Basis for Policymaking

Bringing Nursing Competence Into the Policymaking Process

Conclusion

Discussion Questions

References

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Online Resources

Chapter 8 Health Policy Brief: Improving Care Transitions

Improving Care Transitions: Better Coordination of Patient Transfers among Care Sites and the Community Could Save Money and Improve the Quality of Care1

References

Online Resources

Chapter 9 Political Analysis and Strategies

What is Political Analysis?

Political Strategies

Discussion Questions

References

Online Resources

Chapter 10 Communication and Conflict Management in Health Policy

Understanding Conflict

The Process of Conversations

Listening, Asserting, and Inquiring Skills

Conclusion

Discussion Questions

References

Online Resources

Chapter 11 Research as a Political and Policy Tool

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So What is Policy?

What is Research When It Comes to Policy?

The Chemistry between Research and Policymaking

Using Research to Create, Inform, and Shape Policy

Research and Political Will

Research: Not Just for Journals

Discussion Questions

References

Online Resources

Chapter 12 Health Services Research: Translating Research into Policy

Defining Health Services Research

HSR Methods

Quantitative Methods and Data Sets

Qualitative Methods

Professional Training in Health Services Research

Competencies

Fellowships and Training Grants

Loan Repayment Programs

Dissemination and Translation of Research Into Policy

Discussion Questions

References

Online Resources

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Chapter 13 Using Research to Advance Health and Social Policies for Children

Research on Early Brain Development

Research on Social Determinants of Health and Health Disparities

Advancing Children’s Mental Health Using Research to Inform Policy

Research on Child Well-Being Indicators

Research on “Framing the Problem”

Gaps in Linking Research and Social Policies for Children

Nursing Advocacy

Discussion Questions

References

Online Resources

Chapter 14 Using the Power of Media to Influence Health Policy and Politics

Seismic Shift in Media: One-to-Many and Many-to-Many

The Power of Media

Who Controls the Media?

Getting on the Public’s Agenda

Media as a Health Promotion Tool

Focus on Reporting

Effective Use of Media

Analyzing Media

Responding to the Media

Conclusion

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Discussion Questions

References

Online Resources

Chapter 15 Health Policy, Politics, and Professional Ethics

The Ethics of Influencing Policy

Reflective Practice: Pants on Fire

Discussion Questions

Professional Ethics

Reflective Practice: Foundational Nursing Documents

Personal Questions

Reflective Practice: Negotiating Conflicts between Personal Integrity and Professional Responsibilities

Personal Question

U.S. Health Care Reform

Reflective Practice: Accepting the Challenge

Personal Question

Reflective Practice: the Medicaid 5% Commitment—an Appeal to Professionalism

Discussion Question

Reflective Practice: Your State Turned Down Medicaid Expansion

Personal Question

Reflective Practice: Barriers to the Treatment of Mental Illness

Personal Question

Ethics and Work Environment Policies

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Mandatory Flu Vaccination: the Good of the Patient Versus Personal Choice

Conclusion

Discussion Questions

References

Online Resources

Unit 2 Health Care Delivery and Financing

Chapter 16 The Changing United States Health Care System

Overview of the U.S. Health Care System

Public Health

Transforming Health Care Through Technology

Health Status and Trends

Challenges for the U.S. Health Care System

Health Care Reform

Opportunities and Challenges for Nursing

Discussion Questions

References

Online Resources

Chapter 17 A Primer on Health Economics of Nursing and Health Policy

Cost-Effectiveness of Nursing Services

Impact of Health Reform on Nursing Economics

Discussion Questions

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References

Chapter 18 Financing Health Care in the United States

Historical Perspectives on Health Care Financing

Government Programs

The Private Health Insurance and Delivery Systems

The Problem of Continually Rising Health Care Costs

The ACA and Health Care Costs

Discussion Questions

References

Online Resources

Chapter 19 The Affordable Care Act: Historical Context and an Introduction to the State of Health Care in the United States

Historical, Political, and Legal Context

Content of the Affordable Care Act

Impact on Nursing Profession: Direct and Indirect

Overall Cost of the Aca

Political and Implementation Challenges

Conclusion

Discussion Questions

References

Online Resources

Chapter 20 Health Insurance Exchanges: Expanding Access to Health Care

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What is a Health Insurance Exchange?

Exchange Purchasers

Other Health Insurance Options

Federal or State Exchanges

State-Based EXCHANGES

Development of the Exchanges

Establishing State Exchanges

The Federal Exchange Rollout: ACA Setback

New York’s Success Story

The Oregon Story

Exchange Features

Marketplace Insurance Categories

Role of Medicaid

Nurses’ Roles with Exchanges

Consumer Education

State Requirements Include Aprns in Exchange Plans

Assessing the Impact of the Exchanges and Future Projections

Conclusion

Discussion Questions

References

Online Resources

Chapter 21 Patient Engagement and Public Policy: Emerging New Paradigms and Roles

Patient Engagement Within Nursing

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Patient Engagement and Federal Initiatives

The VA System: an Exemplar of Patient-Centered Care

From Patient Engagement to Citizen Health

Conclusion

Discussion Questions

References

Online Resources

Chapter 22 The Marinated Mind: Why Overuse Is an Epidemic and How to Reduce It

Commonly Overused Interventions

Reasons for Overuse

Financial Incentives as the Major Cause of Overuse

The Marinated Mind

Physician and Nurse Acknowledgment of Overuse

Public Reporting to Reduce Overuse

Journalists Advocate for More Transparency About Overuse

Discussion Questions

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